“Medium Theory” by Jennifer Jones (497 words)

media_monkeysThe essay, “Medium Theory,” describes a theory for how media forms impact aspects of society. In this essay there are two main first-generation medium theorist, named IHarold A. Innis, and Herbert M. McLuhan; Innis believed that some elites were able to control medie more than others. Amongst Innis was another well-known scholar, Herbert M. Mcluhan, who believed that the use of different technologies affects the organization of the human senses and the structure of the culture. These ideas that these two explore are talked about in this chapter and vividly states the origin of media, and how it has been able to transform and become modern to fit the new media standards of “Web 2.0,” and I will go in depth about how it plays a role in social media.

Before there was the print and press, there were scrolls, and people –such as Neanderthal’s– wrote or got messages out by scribbling on wall’s. This shows that media impacts in societies has always been around, they just continue to grow and expan. We all can agree that it’s better to type things, rather than having to print, or it’s much tidier to do so. Less effort goes into using a computer/tablet, than printing-pressing articles, or scribbling on a cave wall. There’s plenty of ways that these media platforms has evolved, which you can tell by the examples I previously listed.

The ways in which the new media of “Web 2.0” including social media has become so influential on a society are very visible within the American culture (and many more). In the American society “Web 2.0” has expanded over the last 10 years; within the blink of an eye we saw our society transition from Newspapers, to reading things on the internet. This is because, “most electronic media emphasize feeling, appearance, and mood.” (Currents in Communication, Chpt 2, Herbert M. McLuhan, 66) Not to say that those back in the day didn’t enjoy receiving their news in a newspaper, but to say that the society accepted those as the norm because the digital media has not yet been created, or has only been accessible to those of the elite class.

The social media aspect of “Web 2.0” has also played a huge role on society; some would say for the better others would say for the worse. Social media has impacted “politics, business, privacy, and socialization.” These things are seen in our society has the head leaders of our lives. Kids are mostly impacted by this because they’re more maluable than adults. “The average child sees more than 20,000 commercials each year (12). More than 60% of commercials promote sugared cereals, candy, fatty foods and toys” Also, “Entertainment would be the other function of the mass media where it is mostly used by the masses to amuse them in present day hectic environment.”

Cura Personalis is what Messina was all about and how to not only round us as good college students, but to also see to it that we’re becoming a whole well rounded person, even outside of the classroom.


An Overview of The Daily Repeater: A Final Exam Blog by Jonathan Flink

Jonathan Flink – 523 words

Newspaper organisations throughout the ages have flourished throughout the ages for a multitude of factors, and they continue to remain relevant primarily because of the information they have and how they are able to send it out to the world. Newspapers have changed dramatically over the course of history – from the times of the Revolutionary war, all the way up until today.

The largest change for newspapers was the news being printed on newsprint and the use of the printing press. Automation for newspaper production had boosted the amount of newspapers that could be put out to the world in the early days, and the way the automation evolved continued to pump news to the masses. A development such as this was the leading cause to the boom of the newspaper industry; several different newspapers began appearing in major cities globally, publishing morning, afternoon and even evening additions. Where the early papers only gave the generic news, supply and demand had the newer papers giving readers not only news, but weather, sports and many other topics that informed them.

Over time, because of the need to meet popular demand, newspaper costs rose and the number of subscribers began to fall. A drop in subscribers was a cause by an increase in the use of technology. The world no longer required paper and ink when they had electronic delivery such as tablets and smartphones to meet the consumer’s timely demands on when and how they want the news presented to them – or what type of news they want to see.

Newspaper convergence can be taken both positively and negatively. Convergence shows how the global society has progressed technologically –  we can access content much easier than we could three-hundred years ago. It has created more jobs within newer industries such as app development. However, convergence has also left a negative impact on the newspaper industry. Although technology seemingly has suppressed and outdated the use of the newspaper, the media has adapted to the change by offering online editions of their newspapers. Technology allows newspapers to move beyond the printed page and into a digital world. Although the content might not have changed, how it is created, distributed and accessed is definitely something that has.

If we take a look at a newspaper that has nearly benefited from convergence such as the Baltimore Sun, we can observe the different aspects of what the paper and electronic versions have to offer – and find that both are not so different from each other. Where a traditional newspaper covers large-scale articles that cover entire pages, the Baltimore Sun website offers its reader a multitude of articles on their home page. Each section ranges from Top News to popular news – sports, entertainment and politics galore. Advertisements to stamp much of the website, but only to give it support. This is only a newer version of the advertisement we are already used to in printed versions. All-in-all, there is little different between the two, yet so much has changed. One thing remains certain – the content will never change, but the way it is given to us will always evolve.


Bradshaw, Paul. “Ten Ways Journalism Has Changed in the Last Ten Years (Blogger’s Cut).” Online Journalism Blog. N.p., 06 Mar. 2008. Web. 06 May 2015. <http://onlinejournalismblog.com/2008/03/06/ten-ways-journalism-has-changed-in-the-last-ten-years-bloggers-cut/&gt;.

Where Television Was, Is, and Is Headed by James Nemia (502 Words)

Television has become a huge part of people’s lives around the world. The history of television began in 1884 when a German university student created the first model for a television. This created model became the foundation for the television experiments that would go on to take place during the 1920’s and 1930’s. Television became a devise that could bring things to people at speeds that was not possible before. For the first time we were able to you were able to receive things like live news updates rather than having to wait for the newspaper to come the next day. This invention was huge because now people all around the world were able to watch things like the 1936 Berlin Summer Olympic Games. “Scenes from the Vietnam War in the 1960s and 1970s were brought into living rooms” by this new thing called television. Over time as television changed, so did the way people watch it.  “As TVs became more affordable and appeared in more homes, that image shifted: Instead of the host showing off his set to the neighbors, we now saw happy families gathered around the warm glow of the TV.” Television became more affordable over time, and this was something that brought families together.

The experience of modern television is changing from a group of people sitting around a television set to a single person sitting in their bed with a laptop or tablet. Ever since the creation of Web 2.0 people have almost limitless abilities on the Internet. With the advancements from Web 2.0 things like Netflix were able to be created. Now you don’t have to wait a week to watch the next episode of the T.V. show that you’re hooked on because you have the whole series right in front of you. Not only did the advancements of the Internet change how we watch T.V. shows, it also changed how we get our news. Now you don’t have to wait for the nightly news to figure out what is going on around the world. The news is very easy to access online and you can find out almost anything you want with a simple Yahoo or Google search.


This graph found from an article on AD analysis shows how much the AD revenue on the Internet has increased in the last decade, greatly surpassing Television advertisement revenues.

With the advancements of Web 2.0 and the constant advancements of the Internet in general I think that the Internet is eventually going to be the only place people will watch T.V. Some televisions are already able to connect to Wi-Fi so you can connect to different Internet apps like Netflix or sports networks. Over the next 10-20 years we will continue to see how the Internet competes with television providers. From where we are right now it looks that Internet television is going to continue to put up a strong fight and continue to expand.

This video shows a little bit about where television is expected to be heading in the future.

Medium Theory Final Essay – Brian Gilfillan

Word Count – 536

Medium theory is important in order to understand how people react to certain things through the media and what people want to see. The Currents in Communication textbook defines medium theory as “particular characteristics of each individual medium or of each particular type of media.” Furthermore, medium theory analyzes the senses used to attend the medium. This influences the medium’s “use and its social, political, and psychological impact” (59). The medium theory is essentially used to study the way people react to the medium.

Two of the most well known medium theorists were Harold Adams Innis and Herbert Marshall McLuhan. Innis argues that social and political power is gained through control over communication media and that elites can more easily control media than others. Also, Innis says that media such as hieroglyphics lead to small, stable societies because stone carvings last a long time and cannot be revised. Additionally, McLuhan suggests “the use of technologies affects the organization of the human senses and the structure of the culture” (61). McLuhan would then divide the history of medium theory into three different eras: oral, writing/printing, and electronic.

There are different aspects in which medium theory has been used throughout the history of media. The textbook gives a couple examples in which medium theory has been used in different eras. The first era mainly consisted of oral societies. In this era, the ideas and concepts depended upon the living memory of people. Individual expressions, novel ideas, and complex ideas are limited because they are hard to remember. However, the oral world includes “involvement with all of the senses of hearing, sight, taste, and touch” (63).

The next era included the printing press. The upper and middle class were able to go to the libraries instead of having to rely on oral communication. The literate were now able to read and write about things and they were able to different viewpoints and perspectives. This was the beginning of the transition away from communicating orally.

Lastly, the electronic era started a new world of media and communication, while also bringing back some of the ideas from oral communication, such as reaction and perception. However, electronic media is not limited to a time or space and it can be viewed by a larger audience than any other form of media.

Web 2.0 has a major role in the way media is received by the general public. Firstly, Web 2.0 can be defined as “a second generation of the World Wide Web that is focused on the ability to collaborate and share information online. It is a new way to interact with others on the Internet and share your opinions on different topics with many people. The media uses many different social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram to show the people what is happening in the world.

Web 2.0 also allows people to communicate easier with emails. This is important for businesses to communicate with each other in order to for them to succeed and be collaborative. More people will be accustomed to the Internet because of Web 2.0, which will give them completely different skill sets than people from the different eras of media.

Works Cited

Currents in Communication textbook




Television Before, Currently, and in the Future – Marc Acevedo


Imagine a world without television. If you’re like the broad majority of today’s society, I am fairly sure that you can not in fact imagine something as absurd as a life without your favorite unadulterated programs. One reason for that is because of the innumerable effect television has had on society. It is because of television that we can watch our New York Mets satisfy and ultimately disappoint us on a nightly basis, the latest happenings in our local area, and our favorite nighttime television personality butt into pop culture with their satirical views. Believe it or not, there was a simpler time before the invention of the television, but aren’t we glad we have it now? Television has innovated the way our world works, and continues to shape it to this day. However, to fully understand where we are with the television, and where we are going, we must look toward the past.

Television’s history isn’t as illustrious as you’d imagine. The successful breakthrough with television around the time of inception is credited to Boris Rosing of Russia. Using a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT), as the receiver end for a video signal, Rosing was able to project rudimentary, while all the while groundbreaking, objects onto the screen. This was then eclipsed when American inventor, Philo Farnsworth, used electron beams to scan images and  then have it reflect onto the screen.

Met with immediate interest due to the market possibilities, the prospect of the television was a great opportunity. The company that would pioneer this project and fund development would be none other than RCA, the same company that helped bring radio entertainment to the forefront of its respective market. With the great funding allotted to the development of this new technology, the fascination of TV entertainment was born, leaving ourworld forever changed. This great milestone would debut to a national audience at the World Fair in New York.

It did not take long for the TV to become popular and as the emphasis on leisure activities increased, so did the television market. From primitive begins with poor picture quality and broadcasting conditions, the television market would soon begin to skyrocket. Followed by huge breakthroughs such as the now reliable, color television, and digital television thereafter, Television, and the role it played in society had now been well documented, assisted in its huge rise to popularity by personalities such as Roone Arledge, Edward R. Murrow, and even people like Oprah Winfrey who demonstrate a level of Cura Personalis (4).

Where is television now though and how does it work in conjunction with the Web 2.0 era? Moreover, where could one possibly see the state of television in the near future; i.e. ten to twenty years from now? First, we must understand what Web 2.0 is. Simply put, Web 2.0 is the age in the Internet that emphasizes and highlights user-generated content. Examples would include social networking sites, blogs, and even wikis. Furthermore, things have begun to change as of recently in regards to how we are entertained with television. What was once just a receiver box where a person watched what was being broadcast is now a hub for a viewer to access the infinitely large world of content, whether it is professionally produced or homemade. This change is so drastic and falls into a realm where complete user discretion is allowed is being called by some the age of Television 2.0, a namesake derived from its Internet predecessor, Web 2.0. As for the question of, “What will the TV be like in ten to twenty years,” I personally think that the TV is on it’s way to becoming something like that of Netflix. Oddly enough, one of the most reasonable outlooks on the future of the television industry comes from a proponent of Netflix, CPO, Neil Hunt. In the not so far, yet not so close future, one could expect a plethora of channels, each tailored to a viewer’s specific taste. Televisions of this time will know what you want to watch before you even do and the presence of even independently made programs will be at the ready for consumers willing to watch.

Word Count: 685

Television: Then and Now

By Lauren Fabiszak, Word Count: 562

Television as Americans know and love it today was first invented in 1927 by Philo Farnsworth and Vladimir Zworkin. As stated in the “Currents in Communication” textbook, “in 1934, The U.S. Communications Commission established the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to regulate broadcasting”, but it wasn’t until 1939 until the “RCA demonstrated television broadcasting at the New York World’s Fair.”

By 1960, television was the newest and best thing, with large groups of families and friends crowded around 1 TV set to watch a program in complete awe. At the time, there were only 3 TV networks, and the first communication satellite wasn’t brought to fruition until 1962. However, “of the many flaws of ’60s entertainment TV, a major one was that it didn’t reflect what was going on in America, whether it was the civil rights movement or the escalation of the Vietnam War. Back then, there was a lot of TV that was created by producers who really underestimated the audience,” TV critic Eric Deggans said.

Fast forwarding now to the present day, where “tuning in” to a television show is basically taboo. People are more on-the-go, so their priorities have changed and they want to do everything at their own convienience. With the popularity rise of sites such as Netflix and social media app Twitter, the need to rely on watching scheduled TV programming is declining. Through these other mediums, viewers are granted immediate access to information or entertainment. “Netflix may have begun the revolution, but the market is now wide open, with everyone — not only Amazon and Google, but also the traditional networks like NBC and CBS — diversifying how they provide content, said Robert Thompson, professor of pop culture at Syracuse University.

According to Forbes magazine, TV in the Web. 2.0 era is now being referenced to as, “Television 2.0”. “Television is on the verge of becoming completely personalized, interactive and enjoyed on-demand. In the Television 2.0 world, targeting gets personal.” The magazine further explains this new topic by adding that “arguably the best part of Television 2.0 is that all these advances are happening independently from the TV itself. So, none of the investment in your state-of-the-art home theater system went to waste. Television 2.0 will just make that home theater all the more spectacular.”

Beyond TV’s ability to reinvent itself, advertisements will also be tailored to the age and interests of the viewer, similar to how YouTube “suggests” related videos for you. “Not only are the commercials different for you and your friend across town, the commercial viewed by parents on the downstairs on one TV will be different than the commercial seen by the kids watching TV upstairs in the same house. With Internet Protocol (IP) set top boxes, demographic targeting is already upon us.”

Although it’s difficult to predict what really is next for the future of television, it’s certainly geared into the direction of personal streaming on devices such as cell phones and iPads. For example, Apple is working on a TV-streaming service that could give cable companies such as Comcast a run for their money. Not only would this new option provide less expensive channel bundles, but “the company’s involvement will surely bolster this new business since so many Americans already use its phones, its tablets and its streaming device, Apple TV.” By 10 or 20 years, it seems very likely that TVs may take the shape of a laptop or smart watch.

Cameron Smith – Television Through Time

Television is our generation’s central source of media used to obtain all kinds of information. Things such as learning about current events going on in our world, how our favorite sports team is doing, and what is happening in our favorite TV show. Television was and is the most influential media source our society offers. But as we know this sort of technology does not appear out of thin air, there are many things that had to occur to give us the televisions we know and love today. The groundbreaking technology that started to make the possibility of television real started with the discovery of cathode rays by William Crookes in 1878. These cathode rays can only be seen when inserted into a glass tube with wires at each end while air is forcefully pumped into the glass creating an electric charge, which gives off a florescent glow.  “Experimentation with television in the United States began in earnest in the 1920s as several inventors struggled with a variety of cathode ray tube designs to find a product with commercial possibilities.” (426) Once this florescent light was harnessed scientists could begin work figuring out how to use them. The company at the head of the race as well as the company who ended up winning was called the “Radio Corporation of America (RCA) who premiered its electronic television set to the public at the 1939 New York World’s Fair.”(426) “Many people saw their first telecasts in bars, which won or retained customers by installing sets, often tuned to an early filler of the schedule, professional wrestling.”TV’s sales started to really increase in the late 1940’s giving way to the “Golden Age of Television.” This time frame from the late 40’s through the 60’s made was for a number of brilliant young writers entertained audiences with their cleverly written and captivating shows. “The quintessential “golden age” drama was Paddy Chayevsky’s Marty.”(426) But Paddy was not the only big name that helped mold television into what it is today. Names such as “Roone Arledge, Edward R. Murrow, and Oprah Winfrey helped shape television and give it its character.”(4) These people shaped media, as we know it today starting in 1934 and moving all the way to the present where we pick one of our 3 flat screen TV’s and be entertained.

The technology in televisions changed drastically from 1960 to the 2000’s. “By the end of the 1960’s there were approximately 78 million television sets in homes across the United States; 200 million around the world.” The 70’s were the last decade where black and white televisions were made and “the first direct to broadcast satellite television was launched in 1972.” The 80’s were not as innovative but produced the VCR. The 90’s and 00’s gave us the biggest increase in technology with the invention of DVD players and analog television. This time is said to be the “age of technological change” mostly thanks to the invention and increased popularity of the Internet. Now in 2015 televisions are everywhere and they play a key role in our society. In this age of web 2.0 televisions allows its users a lot of control at the push of a button. We have millions of movies and TV shows at our command with smart TV’s and Netflix. In the future I see the internet and televisions melting into one big system where you can watch your favorite shows while you browse your internet profile from the comfort of you’re lazy boy.