All posts by preciousuwaya

Evolution and Convergence of the Print Industry- Precious Uwaya (654 words)

From the colonial times, to early twenty-first century America, print media was the predominant form of information access. Including breaking news, gossips, trends and opinion pieces. The print media once a dominate foothold is slowly dwindling with the technological increase. Despite the print media convergence with technology, its success in the future is uncertain and declining.

Chapter 12 of the text book explains that newspapers were introduced to the American colony toward the end of the seventeenth century by the British Empire. These early newspapers were usually no more than four pages long filled primarily with short news and largely geared to an elite and educated audience. The newspaper industry flourished when the Revolutionary War broke out and dozens of papers were being published as people’s curiosity for news with England increased.  By the time the war ended in 1783, there were an estimated forty-three newspapers operating in the United Sates. Technological improvements in the early nineteenth century lead to an increase of newspaper circulation. Before the late 19th century, paper was often made from textile fibers such as cotton and linen however the invention of paper from wood pulp created low-cost, low-quality paper and readily available papers. The rise of the paper industry made paper cheap, which meant that newspapers could be printed for reasonable prices. Prices so reasonable that in 1833, when Benjamin Day launched the New York Sun, he sold it for one cent an issue. An increase in low cost meant that average working people could buy newspaper which greatly expanded the potential reading audiences. The affordability of newspaper became known as the penny press. In the American colonial times newspapers started out as a luxury for the elite and educated and in the course of fifty-years evolved into a commodity necessary for everyday life, until the early twenty-first century. Competition from television, and other social media sites is creating an immense decline in readership. Below is a graph showing the decline of newspaper readership in adults.  Just in the course of 40 years from 2010-1970, readership fell 40%.


With the decline in leadership, the print media needs to evolve to survive this technological based world by converging with the technology boom. Convergence  is defined as the coming together of two distinct identities, which in this context, means the coming together of two different media outlet into one.  The print industry specifically newspaper have been very affected by convergence.  Due to the demand for easier access of content on the go, society has lost interest in classic newspaper leading to a decline of newspaper readership.  Which is attributed to rapid development of the internet, television news companies, and social media. The United States had 267 fewer newspapers in 1990 than it had in 1940. By 1992, only thirty-seven cities in the United States had separately owned, competing daily newspapers. Many newspaper have converged by shifting gradually from print to digital. Newspapers are struggling to change their business model for example New York Times has merge its print n digital newsrooms and the Washington Post has an online college.  Many newspapers have created available apps to read news on the go.

The Baltimore sun appears to use multimedia and use participation by enabling readers to communicate with them via twitter, Facebook, Gmail, and ETC and having an online app for easy read on the go and easy sharing.  The Baltimore Sun also has a talk forum where readers can place their opinion regarding specific topics such as the Orioles, or any other topic they wish to get off their chest. This is done because of the accessibility of social media is making it easier to access news therefore, the infusion of technology is being used to attract audience of all ages, as to decrease revenue loss, and complete annihilation of the print industry. Despite the changes being made by the print media to converge with technology, sadly it is only a matter of time before the print media is no more.


A dog is a dog again. Caulfield Lecture by Precious Uwaya


speaker Dr. Swisher yesterday emphasized the importance and takeover of the digitization of the world. It is now very easy to live stream stuff everywhere, and everything is being recorded and will remain forever which will change the way humans interact forever.  We are in a world where we are constantly broadcasting, communicating, sharing, responding. It is now easier for companies to pick up on our mistakes, and it makes an individual trackable. In a digitized world we can now communicate with people good, bad always in our own devices.  It will be hard to be anonymous in a fully shared society, will be almost impossible not to be track able, with enormous implication how to present yourself online.  “It will mean a dog is a dog again” Companies spy on you to get information. The speaker did have a concern that these age of digitization that has interrupted the human experience and urges people to create technology that does not interrupt the human experience.

The author talked about self-driving cars with no pedals or steering wheel which Google has made prototype, cars just goes.  The speaker also talks about the culture phenomenon where everyone can comment on everything.  Journalist have to think of constantly transmit story, so do brands. Awesome technology such as clothing has transmission center, eventually chips, Google work on digital contact lenses. It will make you expose yourself. She also talks about how the need to not waste energy has created innovative ideas such as Uber. The author left the crowd with the message that coding literacy is important to have and understands. She cautions the lack of production of people in the STEM field.

Precious Meme Blog Post

A meme or an internet meme, is a virally transmitted cultural symbol or social idea which can be deep or simple with the purpose of conveying an idea or message. Historically meme’s have been around but in the medium of fables, jokes, or stories that traveled via word of mouth. However meme’s in this recent society has taken a written form and are often spread rapidly via the internet. Memes are connected with Web 2.0 because the increase of technology has led to a “new conduit for transmitting information and for communicating.” In this case a meme.  According to chapter 10 of currents in communication textbook, teenagers are most often likely to create their own webpages, share their original creative content and remix content found online into new products because of the time and accessibility they have of creating information. Many internet memes are about shock value and drama however some of them are involve deep messages and social commentary, a combination that can be provided by teenagers because of the time and accessibility they have of creating information. Some examples of the most popular internet memes right now are: Futurama Fry, Bad Luck Brian, Skeptical Baby, One does not simply, and Alien guy memes.

skeptical_baby                one-does-not-simply-a       bad-luck-brian           futurama-fry

These memes are so popular because they convey a message or an opinion shared by a majority of people, over popular social medium. The instantaneous ability to acquire these meme’s increases their popularity as they are shared especially. Memes are also very short to read and do not require a lot of effort being put into them.

Viral videos makes money because of how quickly the videos are watched and shared. Big companies can place commercial on the video, which makes profit for the individual every time the video is viewed and watched. Also according to a new study by Jonah Berger, an assistant professor at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School, viral videos are famous because of the visceral emotions it arouses in the viewers. Berger argues that viral videos have the ability to excite the body in a spectrum of physiological changes, this heightened states makes it more likely for people to share information they viewed. `Similarly for  “Can I have a Cheezburger” website increased commercial,  advertisement, republish and share of these memes makes the website money.

For my meme creation, I used the popular app Ifunny, to create my meme, the app supplied me with the picture and I placed the caption.


Although the app does not tell how many people viewed the picture, it does inform you of how many people liked it, a like is also known as a smile. I received 3 smiles for the above memes. My meme did not really generate any buzz because Ifunny has about 100 thousand users who constantly input meme into a collective, hoping for it to get featured. Being featured means the meme or gif has generated a lot of smiles of likes therefore is being featured. Maybe with time my meme will generate more buzz.

What Would Google Do? Jeff Jarvis

download jeff jarvis

What Would Google Do, written by Jeff Jarvis an American journalist, professor and former television critic explores how Google’s founders and executives have changed the rules of business in an internet age by introducing new rules to follow in a modern age.  Google’s adaptability had resulted in a change of interaction between individuals, companies, businesses and the world. By analyzing the way Google responds to situations and creating market and innovation, Jarvis has been able to identify set of rules created by Google which it follows to make it the world superpower, rules that Jarvis claims, can be applied to businesses, societies and enterprises to help and make them succeed as Google did.  According to Jarvis, the book’s central thesis emphasizes the new rules Google has created for this modern age,  rules which can be applied to multifarious elements, and which when applied can lead to the success Google has. Some of the main rules is listed below.


What Would Google Do main premise is based on the concept that the immense change brought about by the internet has resulted in a complete set of rules, and method of doing things, new ways of thinking and implementing things are needed in the new and modern age. The adoption of new rule and ways of looking at things will lead to new ways of facing challenges, solving problems, seeing new opportunities and understanding a different way to look at the economy and society. In his book, Jarvis outlines the “Google Rules” that should be adhered in this brave new world, rules including: the customer is always right, be a platform others can build upon, middlemen are doomed, be transparent and small is the new big.

One of the main point Jarvis points out in his book is the first essential rule of the new age, which is, “give the people control and they will use it, don’t and you will lose it “ pg. 10. Jarvis describes Google’s success in implementing the rule by not serving as a portal instead as a network and platform for information to abound. Google is able to accomplish that rule by focusing less on technology and media and instead creating avenues to enable people make new connections, leading to relationships. To expand on this point, Jarvis compares Google with other internet service companies such as Yahoo and AOL. According to Jarvis, Yahoo and AOL operate under old rules by controlling contents, distribution, customers and showing consumer ads.   A huge contrast to Google who spreads itself all over the web by going to the people, and integrating itself with the individual, and enabling individuals which enables Google.

Jarvis conveys in his book that the internet disruption of everything created an opportunity for Google to bring in organization.  Google has an amazing ability to organize information, maps, documents, and people. As opposed to deciding what a community should be and creating one, Google enables people and community to use the tool of openness and flexibility creating a mass of niches.  Jarvis suggest that companies be aware of the communities around them. Google’s new world order is to use the internet to leap over borders, countries and companies.

Described as, “Eye-opening, thought-provoking, and enlightening” by USA Today and Chris Anderson author of the long tail describes the book as, “Google is not accompany it’s an entirely new way of thinking: extend that approach to business and culture, revealing just how revolutionary it is.”  What Would Google Do can be purchased on Amazon kindle for $4.99, hardcover $18.57, and paperback $13.86, and audible $11.95, it can also be read for free at

What Would Google Do while interesting does not contain original points. Instead it is an amalgamation of several well-known ideas. I would recommend the book to a novice in the field of technology hoping to learn more, however I would not recommend it to an expert. I have the skepticism that the Google model highlighted in Jarvis book cannot actually be applied in any avenue to receive the same result, a skepticism shared by blogger PeterD. The Google model cannot be applied to every situation and expected to create success because Google is a product of its own environment, and the rules created suit that specific environment.   Also the book is written from an outside point of view looking in as opposed to an insider’s view. Although some of the argument is not solid it is an interesting and informative read.



  1. “Google’s Mission Is to Organize the World’s Information and Make It Universally Accessible and Useful.”Company – Google. Google, n.d. Web. 05 Apr. 2015.
  2. D, Peter. “What Would Google Do? – Book Review.”What Would Google Do?p., n.d. Web. 05 Apr. 2015.

What Would Netflix Do?


Blockbuster or Blockbuster LLC an American based provider of home movies and video games rental was Netflix predecessor. At its peak, Blockbuster LL had over 9,000 stores however increased competition from Netflix and Redbox lead to its bankruptcy. Blockbuster filed for bankruptcy in September 23, 2010, and its remaining stores was bough over by satellite television Dish Network. Netflix or Netflix Inc started out 15 years ago as a company that predominantly provided DVD prescription and service however has evolved into a company that provides on demand Internet streaming media to viewers in all of North America. By taking advantage of the rapidly advancing technology and internet speed, Netflix has been able to make evolve with the growing technology and define itself as the largest video and online video distribution.

In my interviews with people regarding what they used before Netflix, a majority of the interviewees said Blockbuster. Often they would either walk, or drive to get movies, and also buy Nintendo games from blockbuster. When asked to compare their blockbuster use to five years ago a majority of them no longer used blockbuster, and have commented on the fact that they no longer see any blockbuster stores around. The use of blockbuster has been replaced by online streaming avenues such as Netflix, Hulu Plus and or Amazon Prime.

Netflix started out as a rent from home DVD service, and was able to provide a broad range of movie offerings about 75, 000 different movies in its first decade. After 10 years, recognizing the prominent increase and betterment of internet services and video streaming technology, Netflix started to offer online streaming content and Blu-ray discs.


As part of improving its market, Netflix developed its envelope  with an extra-long flap, to make getting and shipping of DVD more effective. The envelope showcased Netflix distribution address and the individual’s one address in one setting making mailing and sending the DVD hassle free.

Netflix took another step in improving it’s to the website by using the recommendation algorithm from its database to determine the kind of movie the consumer enjoys.  The algorithm took the following considerations

  1. the films
  2. customers’ ratings
  3. rented movies
  4. and the combined ratings of all Netflix,

The first algorithm Netflix used was called CineMatch however Netflix launched a competition to find an algorithm that could do better than CineMatch. The team Belkor won first place with a software called Pragmatic Chaos while simonfunk was tied for third.

Pragmatic Chaos works by taking  into consideration the CineMatch database for people who have rated the same movie, determined  which of those people have also rated a second movie, calculates the statistical likelihood of  people who liked those movies and continues the process to establish a pattern of correlations between subscribers’ ratings of many different films. The change in the website and its movie recommendations made a significant difference in Netflix ability to provide amazing customer service.

By 2007, high-speed Internet access from home had become more affordable and more common. Netflix got a jump on that market by adding unlimited online streaming as one of its subscription starting in January 2008.When Netflix transitioned its Web site to Amazon’s cloud services in 2010it began by switching from Silverlight to HTML5 to deliver content to more devices with HTML5. Meaning Netflix could be streamed on more web browsers, consoles and mobile devices.

Netflix currently has about a total of 61.4 million subscribers worldwide. In order to keep its subscriber, Netflix has moved on to the next phase by launching its own original tv shows, such as House of Cards and Orange is the New Black. Finally the next step for Netflix in its evolution is to take over the cinema, and stream new movies directly to people as opposed to viewing new movies at the movie theater.

Netflix ability to evolve with the times, embrace new technology, create novel ideas and take advantage of the user’s innovation enabled Netflix to evolve by gaining  consumer attention , embracing new technology and consumer habits.

My Story Project- My College Experience

For My Story Project, I choose to narrate about my transition from high school to college, and my college experiences so far in the year. One of my biggest challenges was trying to incorporate how i grew throughout the school year. My hardest challenges was making the video because I am not very good with technology. The best part of the project was finding anf going through pictures.

Celebrity Research Project. Ellen DeGeneres and Oprah Winfrey

Ellen DegeneresOWS-showpage2

Forty years ago, celebrities were only known based on what the media such as television and newspaper posted of them.  The public did not really feel a personal connection with these celebrates except via watching their movies and memorizing the main lines. However in this day and age with the use of social media apps such as twitter, Instagram, celebs are able to show the human aspect of themselves. Forty years ago celebs were worshiped as gods however with celebs posting pics of themselves doing everything a person does, it’s easier to feel a close and personal relationship with them. Back then, the media is able to influence the public’s opinion on celebrities, however now a days celebrities have the ability to form public opinions regarding themselves.

Oprah Winfrey and Ellen DeGeneres are currently two of the most influential women right now in the communication industry.  Ellen currently has a TV show dubbed the ellen degeneres show while Oprah Winfrey used to have the Oprah Winfrey show however currently heads her own network called OWN TV.  Both women are talk show hosts, and appeal to all aspects of the American lives on their shows.  I followed both women on twitter to understand the different strategies and techniques implemented by both women.

Ellen DeGeneres is a well-known pubic figure and comedian and is even well known for her weekly show known as the Ellen DeGeneres show. The ellen degeneres show has been nominated for 11 Emmy awards. Ellen has a very big public figure, is married to super model Portia de Rossi and has  Ellen has 40.7 million followers.  From her twitter account, Ellen appears to be the person actively sending her tweets, it appears she does not utilize a social media representatives. Ellen appears to be popular with women in their late 20’s and early 30’s. In order to drawn in a younger crowd she uses twitter and actively engages with her audience by showing them previews of what is to come of her show, previews of trailers, and uses has tags. For example she posted on her twitter a preview of a trailer for the Pixar new movie that has not been seen by the general public, by doing this she shows that she cares and is exhibiting her love for her fans. Ellen mentions and follows other celebrities like Oprah Winfrey, the first lady and Justine Bieber. Ellen has lots of videos and pics from her show, from music videos and pictures and references that her fans can easily understand like a throwback video of a Brittany spears music video. Ellen finds a way to incorporate her shows to keep her fan base, and tweets pictures of Justin Bieber, and the glee cast to attract the younger generation.

Oprah Winfrey, owner of the OWN network, is an actress, producer and philanthropist, dubbed the “Queen of Media” she is considered one of the most influential women in the media industry. The Oprah Winfrey Show aired for 25 seasons and received 47 Daytime Emmy awards. Oprah not only runs her own network called OWN TV, she also has the Oprah reading club, and the Oprah magazines. With all these activities she needs and avenue to contact and connect with her fans which she does via twitter. Oprah currently has 29.6 million followers on twitter. Oprah tweets inspirational quotes and uses hash tags for her show, an example being #soulsunday which is a show on her OWN network.  Oprah seems to appeal to the older generation, her quotes are also inspirational and Philosophical. Oprah does not seem to have a media representative and does not tweet as much. She does not have a lot of videos, only quotes and hash tag and she does not seem to comment on her personal life.

Oprah Winfrey and Ellen DeGeneres are both influential women in the media industry and use social media to connect with fans. Since the people who tune into Oprah are older women and older fan base, she does not tweet as much instead uses her magazine and her TV show as a way of connecting with fans. Oprah only tweets about her shows and does not include a lot of video however Ellen DeGeneres is quite the opposite. She tweets multiple times a day, include videos, re tweets, hash tags and etc. Both women uses social media as different ways to help connect to their fans.


As part of my celebrity research I interviewed three people who followed a wide range and variety of people. The first person interviewed followed a sports team, another a star player from a football sports team, while the last participant followed a reality TV Star.


The first participant Dan follows Washington Red Skins star player RG3 also known as Robert Griffin the third. Dan is drawn to RG3 because he is a dual threat quarterback, he is seen as the Red Skins savior, and he had an amazing year and took the Red skins to the playoffs. RG3 actively engages with his fans via twitter. Robert Griffin the third is currently in physical therapy due to tearing his ACL so he posts motivational quotes, and pictures of his progress during physical therapy. In doing this, he attempts to motivate his fans and the Washington Red Skin fan that he is doing well and will return back to the football game.

Chealsea football team

D.J follows the Chelsea soccer team on twitter, because he is an avid soccer fan. The Chelsea is an England soccer team with 5.2 million follower, they actively interact with fans by tweeting about games, and asking people to engage in prizes and etc. Since the Chelsea Soccer team has a twitter account, it is very possible that the twitter account is being managed by a social media expert who knows how to get fans engaged an excited. The team post tweets of the game, and engages fans by encouraging participation of gifts, prizes and signed items such as jerseys and football of the players. It is possible that the individual on the teams have their own twitter accounts which they manage individually.

kim kardashian

Taylor is drawn to Kin Kardashian amazing fashion sense, and the entertainment she provides. Kim Kardashian actively involves with her followers by using all medium of social media such as Instagram and twitter. Kim actively tweeting about her day, and hash tags other celebrities, and friends. Kim’s ability of constantly posting enables the public and her fans to feels closer to her on a personal level.

The advancement of social media, has created an increased false  sense of personal attraction to celebrities and has greatly personalized celebrities.